Archive for January, 2008

Interesting Weather This Week and the Great Flood
January 28, 2008

Interesting and difficult pattern setting up. Tuesday we get rain. Lots of wind energy aloft. Some of that may come down to the ground in the form of gusty winds in a few t’storms. Behind it wrap around moisture working with plunging temperatures will probably produce some snow. Roads could become difficult for the drive to work on Wednesday, though strong winds may lessen the effect through sublimation. We’ll be cold and sunny by Wednesday afternoon but Thursday night, another system approaches. For the past several days it appeared to be mainly a rain event but the latest data indicates that the system may be a tad farther east, which raises the prospects for snow on Friday morning. Stay tuned as we continue to evaluate the data.

On This Date In History: If you remember the photos above, you are probably collecting Social Security. Those photos are from the 1937 flood in Louisville. The top photo is from the Confederate Monument near U of L looking back toward downtown. The lower photo is from 1st and Breckenridge. The 1937 flood is by far the greatest flood event in recorded history on the Ohio River. There really wasn’t much snow but there was bunch of rain in the Ohio Valley basin. As an example, Louisville got 15 inches of rain from the 12th to the 24th of January and 19 inches for the month. The entire Ohio Valley basin received an over abundance of rain. The Ohio River in Louisville crested on January 27, 1937.

On this date in 1937, the water finally began to recede from record levels of over 85 feet on the lower gauge of the McAlpine Lock and just over 52 feet on the upper gauge. The flood stage is 55 feet and 23 feet respectively.
The Falls of the Ohio is the result of a geological rise. There is a fall in the elevation of some 26.5 feet over 2 miles. The rapids were said to be spectacular with one observer in 1811 saying it was “more spectacular than Niagara.” It was said you could hear the roar of the water from miles away. Trouble with this was that when the river was low, it was not navigatable. If you were going down stream, you took your cargo and unloaded it at Louisville and then reloaded on another vessel at Portland. The falls are part of the reason for Louisville’s existence. It was either at the end of 1830 or 1831 that the Louisville and Portland Canal opened up as a way to circumnavigate the falls in times of low water. Later, in 1870, the US Army Corps of Engineers embarked on a canalization of the Ohio River project. It would create over 50 locks and dams along the river to ensure consistent navigation. The final dam was the one at Louisville in 1925, though it has been updated many times. The last was in the 1960’s when they went from a wicker dam to a permanent structure across the entire river.
I want to know if the canalization of the Ohio had any effect on the flood of 1937. It was the greatest flood of 175 years of civilization and evidence suggests that it was the greatest in geologial history. But…there wasn’t a series of dams on the river for all time. The role of the Corps of Engineers, even today, is not for flood control but strictly navigation. The absence of any mention in the NWS report is curious. Would the flood of 1937 been less if the river had been allowed to flow freely and is that the reason why in geologic time there has not been a bigger flood? I dunno and in pragmatic terms I suppose it doesn’t matter. Doesn’t mean I’m not curious.
Here is the link to the NWS site with the report. It’s got some cool picture but the one of the horse hanging in the tree is rather ghoulish.

A Thaw and The Real Confederate Flag
January 26, 2008

Look for some warmer air to filter in the area over the next few days. We should wander into the 50’s on Monday but a front spoils the fun on Tuesday that brings rain and somewhat cooler conditions. Highs for most of the rest of the week will be seasonably cool. What’s going on is that we have a shift in the polar jet stream such that it has lifted up in the east and will be diving somewhat to the south in the west. So there will be decent prospects for snow out west. Here’s the deal though. The subtropical jet stream is getting active. Late in the week a low will develop on the jet that will propel it into the Southeast. There is some indication that the polar jet will also dive farther south in the East. Should those two phase together, or run parallel in the Southeast, then our prospects for a good snow will increase. Right now, the data is a bit in flux and its possible the low swings up to our north or stays south. If it runs in between, which is possible, then it could get interesting. Stay tuned.

The Confederate Flag: With the South Carolina primary for the Republicans last week and this weekend’s Democratic version, the old flag controversy has raised its head again. Thing is, the flag that is in question was not the real flag. The original flag looked the one above. But commanders on the battlefield complained that it looked like the Union’s Stars and Stripes and it was difficult to determine friend from foe at distances. They changed it a couple of times by putting what would be a square “stars and bars” shape in the corner of a white field and then the same design only with a red vertical bar on the right end.

The Army of Northern Virginia had used the common “stars and bars” for quite some time though it was a square, not rectangular flag. In fact, the proper name of the flag is the flag of the Army of Northern Virginia. I suppose since that was the army of Robert E. Lee and is so prominent in remedial history and because it was associated with arguably the South’s best or at least best known general, it became dominant in lore.

Now, the Confederate navy had a couple of flags. One was a square blue field with a circle of 7 stars. Then it was a flag similar to the Army of Northern Virginia flag except it featured a different shade of blue and it was rectangular. The flag the ended up as what is now thought to be the Confederate flag, or the “stars and bars,” has the design and color of the Army of Northern Virginia, but the shape of the second naval flag.

So, one can only conclude that the flag that is the center of controversy never really existed in its present form. All of those movies are wrong. In many battles, a completely different flag was used and the one used that is most similar was a square not a rectangle. The flag has 13 stars but there were really only 11 states in the Confederacy. They added the other two to try and claim Kentucky and Missouri but claims and truth are often at odds. And finally, ironically, the general’s opposition to the use of the flag on the battle field was the exact reason for its original design. The Confederate Congress adopted the flag design above specifically because it did resemble the Stars and Stripes.

So, don’t believe the hype. The flag that has become such a controversial symbol, in fact, did not exist until after the war. I’m surprised that someone who is against the flag would not raise that point. Maybe if they read my blog….

Pieman Makes It Big, Others Get the Dough
January 23, 2008

Look for some light snow showers or flurries Wednesday night into Thursday. Won’t amount to much but will be the entre for a short shot of Arctic air. Highs on Thursday will probably be in the low 20’s and will probably be in the morning. In general, expect temps in the teens with breezes making it feel much colder. Single digits on Friday will mark the end of this extended cold period. There will be a pattern change so after perhaps some snow early Saturday, we move above freezing by Saturday afternoon and then to the mid to upper 50’s by the first part of next week. It would appear that this persistent cold spree is done for this round.

On This Date In History: On this date in 1957, Wham-O came out with a new toy called the Pluto Platter. It had been sold to the company by Walter Morrison, who had invented the plastic disc with Warren Frascioni in 1948. Morrison called it the Pluto Platter, hoping to take advantage of the UFO craze going on at the time. In 1958, Wham-O changed the name to the Frisbee. Why is that you ask?

In 1871, William Frisbie of Bridgeport, CT started the Frisbie Pie Company. Some of of the local kids discovered that the pie tins would fly if tossed properly. For some reason, they would shout “Frisbie” as they threw it to one another. In 1967, Wham-O company designer Ed Headrick patented his new and improved version of the disc, which featured raised ridges for better aerodynamic performance. The craze took off from there and by 1977 the company had sold over 100 million units. Wham-O cashed out in 1994 when they sold the toy to Mattel.

Of course there has now been ultimate frisbee tournaments..that was a game invented by a high school kids in Maplewood, NJ and there is frisbee golf which was invented by Headrick.

It sounds like to me that Wham-O made all of the money and that Headrick cashed in pretty well himself. Frascioni bailed out too early and apparently didn’t get much. The kids who discovered the aerodynamic fun of the pie plates certainly didn’t get anything and I assume that the kids who invented ultimate frisbee were left in the cold. Nope…as is often the case, many are responsible for the phenomena but only a few profited. Perhaps the biggest loser was William Frisbie, who not only got nothing from the toy but suffered the indignity of Wham-O misspelling his name.

But I hear he made really good pies.

Tom Sneaks Money to Lew and Clark
January 19, 2008

An arctic boundary will be moving through the area on Saturday. The highs for the day will probably be in the late morning and that would be in the mid to maybe upper 20’s. Snow flurries? Perhaps but nothing worth talking about. Oh, okay, you can talk about it but it will be a short conversation. The real story is the cold air. Sunday morning bundle up if you are headed to church or anywhere else because lows will be in the upper half of the single digits. We won’t be that cold but still generally below average for the week ahead.

On This Date in History: There are two things that we see as normal. One is the idea that Thomas Jefferson was the ultimate arbiter of the Constitution. The other is that the President submits a complete budget. Well, people forget that President Jefferson sent American troops and ships all the way to North Africa to fight the Barbary Pirates, who were Muslims. It was an undeclared war yet Jefferson maintained that it was Constitutional even though he didn’t go to Congress for a war declaration. On this date in 1803, Jefferson secretly sent a request to Congress for funding for the Lewis and Clark expedition as he was afraid of the formal, Constitutional budgeting process.

Jefferson had already determined in 1802 to explore the west. He had already determined that his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, would lead the expedition. He asked Lewis to come up with the costs necessary and they ended up at $2500 which included nearly $700 for gifts to the Indians.

Small problem. The expedition would take the men beyond US territory. So, it was a big secret. So much so that for months only maybe a few people beyond Jefferson and Lewis knew about it. So secret, that Jefferson was advised to not include it in his budget request to Congress. Instead, he sent a secret message to Congress asking for the money. Congress, I suppose, secretly approved the money. They probably didn’t care too much since they had just approved over $9 million for the purchase of Louisiana. Actually, Jefferson only wanted to buy New Orleans from the French but Napoleon was short on money for his latest military escapades and wasn’t able to defend the territory anyway. So, he offered up what amounts to about a third of the Continental United States along with New Orleans for $15 million and Jefferson jumped on it and the treaty was signed on April 30, 1803. It was rather controversial….see…many constitutional scholars didn’t think that the purchase was Constitutional either. Jefferson just did it.

Eventually, Lewis chose his old military friend William Clark to be his second. The expedition was originally expected to have ten men besides Lewis but that number grew to nearly 3 dozen. Most historical references have the expedition starting on May 14, 1804 near St. Louis but local historians point out that Lewis got his crew together in Louisville several weeks before so locals say it really started here. But, St. Louis was just about as far as civilization stretched so how could someone explore something that was already inhabited. Anyway, one of the guys they took with them was Sargent Charles Floyd of Clarksville. There’s a county on the sunny side of Louisville that bears his name. He is the only fatality of the expedition, having died of appendicitis a few months after they began.

Anyway….the point here is that you need to check things out before you assume things are true. Jefferson, though one of our founding fathers, was more than capable of navigating around the Constitution when it suited his fancy and when he thought it was in the best interest of the nation for the long term. In each instance, he seems to have been correct. Today, Presidents are rarely given that benefit of the doubt.

A Day Of Ironies
January 17, 2008

I have found this day to be one of flips and flops. Weatherwise is no exception. We have a situation in which we are in between systems. One to the south and one to the northwest. The one to the northwest is bringing decent snow to the Midwest. The one to the south has brought pretty decent snow to Alabama and Georgia and into South and North Carolina. Meanwhile, we’re in between with temperatures above freezing at the surface and about 1000 feet aloft. So, what gives? The South gets snow but we don’t? Well, overnight, enough moisture will come across to produce rain and while it will be light, it may be just heavy enough to drag down cold air and turn the rain to snow. You’ll probably get something less than an inch but then after sunrise anything left over will fall as rain and our temperatures rise well above freezing. So the snow won’t be a big deal nor will it last. It’s still going to get very cold this weekend. Nevertheless, snow in Huntsville, Alabama with visibility near 1/2 mile and we get hardly anything? Hrmph….rather upside down….just like…

This Date In History: So many odd things on this date. For instance….in 1979 the Shah fled Iran which led to the Iranian revolution and the big spread of militant Islamic stuff. Then, 12 years later on the same date in 1991, the US led a coalition in what became known as Desert Storm so that it might stop Saddam Hussein from getting Kuwait’s oil. That eventually led to our invasion of Iraq in 2003 and puts us in today’s situation. We have Iraq and Iran and the catalyst for the present day situation regarding both nations began on the same day.

On this date in 1963, the Whiskey-a-Go-Go opened in Los Angeles. It was one of the first discos in the nation and in some way was an early example of the changing culture in America. On the same day in 1973, the series Bonanza aired its final episode. That perhaps was an example of the end of the culture in America that the Whiskey-A-Go-Go replaced. Family-type TV with the good guys and the bad guys where the good guys win and there is a moral to the story at the end seemed to be coming to an end.

On this date in 1970, baseball player Curt Flood filed a lawsuit challenging baseball’s reserve clause. It was a long held clause in player’s contracts that basically tied a player to a team, limiting his ability to work for the highest possible wages. That led to free agency and from that point in 1970, the baseball players union began gaining strength to the point that it became one of the most powerful unions of any type in America. On this date in 2008, Congress had scheduled a hearing to investigate the illegal use of steroids and other drugs by baseball players who had been largely protected by the union. But, Congress postponed the hearing for a month so that they could collect more information on the players.

Very odd alignment of the stars I should say on this date. Three examples of an event tied to another seeming opposite, but related event….both on January 16th. One of the laws of Physics is that every action promotes and equal and opposite reaction. We often hear that history repeats itself, which is really rather untrue. But, I have found that what occurs in the physical world often is mirrored in the metaphysical. I think that this date in history is an example of that and I would suggest that we take heed in our daily lives. So often if we lash out in anger, it often prompts an equal reaction of anger. That’s the bad….the good is one act of kindness often results in a return to that kindness. Sometimes, if you do something nice for someone but get nothing in return, never fear because some day, someone will do something nice for you when you least expect it and they don’t ask for anything in return. What goes around, comes around…and it seems true on this date, January 16….a rather odd day.

Put Away The Sleds, Break Out the Coats, Focus on the Donkey and the Elephant
January 16, 2008

If you are looking for snow, we’re getting snookered. If you don’t want snow, you’re in luck. I’ve been telling you about the prospects for snow on Thursday. Well, a funny thing happened on the way to the snow machine. There is a cold front approaching from the west with an area of low pressure running up along the front. The low will by-pass us to the northwest. There is a low running up from the Gulf of Mexico that will cross the Florida Panhandle and clip Southeast Georgia. It had looked as if the low from the gulf would slide far enough north to throw moisture over us and maybe even over the advancing front. As it appears now, the gulf low is too far south and keeps its moisture from us and the low to the northwest is taking its moisture with it, leaving us in between. The moisture we have has no mechanism to lift it. And we warm up a bit to boot. So, we get a little rain with a little snow and that’s about it. If you get snow it may come for Wednesday night or early Thursday morning, but the sleds will be left gathering dust. But you will need to break out the heavy coats. This weekend we have an Arctic front that will leave us with highs in the teens and low 20’s and Sunday morning will be in the single digits.

On This Date In History: Did you ever wonder how the Democratic Party adopted the Donkey as its symbol and the Republicans got the Elephant? Well, it all goes back to the latter half of the 19th Century and a cartoonist for Harper’s Weekly named Thomas Nast. Harper’s Weekly was a political magazine that reached its zenith at the outset of the Civil War with a circulation of over 200,000. Nast was a feared and popular political cartoonist that came on board in 1862. President Lincoln’s Secretary of War was Edwin M. Stanton. Stanton is widely quoted as having said “now he belongs to the ages” at Lincoln’s deathbed upon Lincoln’s passing. The rest of what he is quoted as saying was “there lies the most perfect ruler of men the world has ever seen.” I’m not sure why that part is generally lost to history except that maybe it would make the quote too long. We like short, catchy phrases in America. It’s also interesting to note that just prior to Lincoln’s death, Stanton had advocated the execution of a man named George Vaughn for spying. Lincoln instead issued Vaughn a pardon…one hour before the 16th President was assassinated.

Anyway, Stanton was a holdover Secretary of War when Andrew Johnson took over. Remember, Johnson was a slave holding Democrat whom Lincoln put on the 1864 ticket in order to woo pro-Union Democrats. Johnson’s reconstruction policies were not in tune with the group of Republicans known as Radical Republicans. Stanton eventually openly challenged Johnson on his policies. The Republican Congress had unconstitutionally passed a law that said the President couldn’t remove a cabinet official without prior congressional approval. Johnson challenged that by firing Stanton. That action led to his impeachment, the only presidential impeachment until Bill Clinton. In both cases, neither man was convicted and removed from office. Keep in mind that impeachment proceedings are largely political and not criminal.

So, Stanton survived but he died in 1869 and I guess the Democrats continued to attack him even in death. So, cartoonist Nash created the drawing above on this date in 1870 depicting the “Copperhead” Democrats, or southern Democrats as the donkey kicking the dead lion, Stanton. The eagle on top depicts the Federal dominion over the South….it was still Reconstruction.

Later, toward the end of President Grant’s second term, there was talk of a third term. This flies in the face of what we’ve been taught in school that Grant was terrible. Truth is he was very popular and might have won a third term. In 1880, he came reasonably close to gaining nomination for a third term as he concluded a world tour. One of his last stops was on December 11, 1879 in Louisville. The New York Herald newspaper vigorously opposed a third term so Nast created a cartoon with a Donkey in a lion’s skin (labeled Caesarism) chasing away other small animals. Those animals were labeled as with other newspaper’s names. Going nuts in the picture is an elephant labeled “Republican Vote” and he’s perched over a deep gorge labeled as “chaos”.

For some reason, the Donkey and Elephant stuck as icons for the opposing parties. Probably due to the popularity of Nast and partly due to lack of creativity on the part of others. So, if someone sticks you with a nickname that you didn’t necessarily ask for, just remember it happened to the two political parties who have dominated the electorate since 1860. May you have such a long and prosperous life.

A Cold Spell and Official Independence
January 14, 2008

We are in the midst of a cold spell that will stick around for awhile, which after seeing my December heating bill makes me shiver. However, being from Houston, I rather enjoy wintry weather since we Houstonians don’t get much of that sort of thing. It looks cold for the foreseeable future with a few chances for snow. We had a dusting early Monday as an upper low wandered across that dropped maybe a quarter to a half inch across the region. It wasn’t much as expected but was sufficient to cause some traffic problems during the late morning rush. Wednesday we may push toward 40 and that would be the warmest to expect. Say adios to those 50’s, 60’s and 70’s of last week. I suspect that by Thursday midday we will not rise above freezing until sometime next week, and that may be but a brief thaw. Thursday still poses a risk for some accumulating snow though amounts forecasts are a bit sketchy at this time. Bottom line is that the cold air is here to stay for awhile…Old Man Winter’s revenge for last week’s “false spring.”

On This Date in History: The independence of this nation was finally ratified on January 14, 1784. The Battle of Yorktown was fought in 1781. The Colonial Army, under General George Washington combined with French forces under General Rochambeau, boxed the British Army in at Yorktown with the French Navy blocking their retreat in the Chesapeake Bay. British General Lord Cornwallis surrendered and the war was over. But, it took until November of 1783 for a final treaty to be signed. This was called the Second Treaty of Paris because there had already been a Treaty of Paris to end the 7 years war. The painting above by Benjamin West was supposed to be of the signing ceremony…but its unfinished because the sore loser British delegation refused to show up and pose. So, its the most famous unfinished painting in history. It wasn’t until this date in 1784 that the treaty was ratified by the United States Congress. So even though we declared independence in 1776 and finished off the crown in 1781 and a treaty was signed in late 1783 and the last British troops finally left shortly thereafter, Congress didn’t get around to putting the official stamp on the end of hostilities until January of 1784…and Congress has been dragging its feet ever since.

Be Thankful For The Bus-Stop Forecast
January 12, 2008

The weather pattern may get a little interesting here in the next few days. We’ve got some colder air filtering in for Sunday as a low moves to our south…perhaps too far south and east to bring us much precipitation when the air gets cold enough for snow. So, we may see some light showers and perhaps some snow flakes. Right now, it appears we may get some snow activity for Tuesday but the good cold air appears to be slinking down after that and we get another system wandering by that may bring us some accumulating snow. By my estimate at this point it may be around Thursday. Either way, don’t look for anymore 60 degree weather any time soon. Old Man Winter has checked the calendar and I don’t think he liked seeing all of the golfers on the courses earlier this week so its payback time. Actually, if the long range data is close to correct, the latter half of January looks very winter like.

On This Date In History: On this date in 1888, the Midwest of the United States suffered from what is now known as either the “Schoolhouse Blizzard” or the “Schoolchildren’s Blizzard.”
Now, just a few days ago we had stories of the unseasonably warm air in our area. We even had people call chastising us for showing signs of happiness for the conditions and not being all forlorn about the prospects of global warming. The truth is, when we hit 71, we did not set a record. The record was 72 in 1907. So, it had happened before and it happened well before anyone suggests that global warming had started. January warm-ups happen. Some call it a false spring. In the Midwest, January 11, 1888 had been unseasonably warm as had the morning of January 12. A cold front came barrelling down with air that dropped temperatures well below zero with high winds. Some reports of the day say that the mercury fell 100 degrees in 24 hours. Last week we had a 50 degree increase in 5 days.

Anyway, when the mercury fell, the snow began to fall. Most likely a shortwave blew up from the southwest and grabbed all of the warm moist air to the south and threw it over the cold air. People who had gone to work and especially school children had not dressed for the extreme cold as the whole thing was a total surprise. 235 people died that day, many of them school children trying to get home. Hence, the name of the storm. One story holds that a teacher was trapped in her schoolhouse with 3 children and by 3 pm they had run out of heating fuel. She tried to lead them 82 yards to her boarding house. Visibility was so poor that they got lost in the short distance and the 3 kids died. She survived but lost her feet to frostbite. There are many other tales of rescues using rope to tie children together as they tried to get to safety.

Extreme weather changes have gone on in this country in the winter for a long long time….long before anyone thought of global warming. Its just that now we have better forecasts to be able to prepare.

It was a tough winter in 1888. In March, New York City had one of its greatest snowfalls and blizzards. From March 12-14, about 50 inches fell and wind drifted the snow to up to 40 feet. The city came to a standstill.

Weather patterns really haven’t changed all that much, its just that forecasting has gotten so much better. Be thankful for the bus-stop forecast. People get upset if we say “up to an inch of snow” and they only get a quarter inch, which is what we said but it wasn’t an inch. The folks in the Midwest in 1888 would trade that for what they got any day of the week.

Snall Chance for Excitement Today
January 10, 2008

As you can see, today’s main severe threat is well to our south and southeast. In general, the Louisville Metro Area will remain in the cooler, more stable sector of the storm system. Light, cool showers this morning have stabilized the atmosphere and made it very difficult for any strong storms to develop. This is a rain event. However, to the east and southeast may have enough wind energy to become problematic and our extreme east and southern parts of the viewing area has a small risk of being susceptible to that sort of thing. The risk would most likely be hail or strong winds but in all likelihood. Should you be traveling down I-65 this afternoon, check your destination as North Alabama looks to be under the gun for potential tornadic activity. Stay tuned to Newschannel 32 today and this evening for updates to make certain that no severe weather sneaks into our area.

Don’t Give Up Your Dreams
January 10, 2008

Weatherwise, we have a slight risk for some strong thunderstorms on Thursday. It should mainly be east and south but could affect part of the viewing area if it materializes. This is by no means a slam dunk but we will monitor it. I’ll have more later with an updated map. Sunday may be interesting regarding rain possibly turning to snow. It depends on the track of a southern storm. We’ll keep tabs on that as well as we get closer to the event.

On This Date In History: One man prospered on another man’s given up dream. In Southeast Texas, near the present city of Beaumont, there was a large rise in the otherwise flat landscape. It was known to the locals as Big Hill. It was known for its natural gas that seeped from it. People would have fun striking matches and igniting small, brief infernos. When it rained the puddles would bubble. In 1888, Captain George Washington O’Brien bought up much of the land surrounding and including the hill because he thought there was oil there.

Beaumont resident Patillo Higgins went to Pennsylvania to study the oil business there and became convinced that there was oil under the hill, then designated as Spindletop Hill. Higgins was looking for ways to fuel his brick factory and knew that in Pennsylvania that brickmakers used oil. George Washington Carroll believed in Higgins and the two formed a partnership. Higgins and Carroll bought the remaining land around Spindletop and eventually partnered up with O’Brien and JF Lanier to form the Gladys City Oil Company and had dreams of Gladys City becoming a booming industrial town.

To make a long story short, Gladys Oil didn’t find oil and they gave up, signing a lease-sell agreement with Anthony F. Lucas. After two years of failure, on this date in 1901, Spindletop blew. After spewing all of the drillpipe and mud skyward, a 6 inch wide stream of oil flowed 200 feet in the air. There had never been a gusher like that before and it took them 9 days to cap it. The 800,000 barrels of oil formed a lake of oil…I don’t remember how many acres wide it was or how many feet deep. And remember, a barrel of oil is 30 some-odd gallons. Beaumont tripled its population in 3 months and the modern oil business took off. Exxon, Texaco, Chevron and Mobil all have their roots in Spindletop. On that date America’s annual oil output was 64 million barrels a day. By 1909, because of Spindletop, it was near 200 million per day.

O’Brien, Carrol, Higgins and the rest gave up on their dream. Don’t you make the same mistake. the way….note that Lucas is not listed among George Bush’s “Oil Buddies.”